(See list of English suffixes at bottom)

(Additions & corrections to






a(n)- (L) without  (acephala)

a-, ab-, abs-(L.) away from, aversion (abductor, abstract). Also (ef-)

abduc- lead from

acanth- prickle

acer- without horns

acetabul- vinegar cup

aceto- acid

acin- cluster of grapes

acri- acrid, sharp

acro- summit, top

acti(n, no)- (G) a ray

acust- (G) acoustic, of hearing

ad- (L.) to, towards (adductor) When used as a prefix the d is sometimes changed to the first consonant of the following word, e.g., acclimate, afferent, assimilate; As a suffix it means towards the part of the body indicated by word to which it is suffixed, e.g., cephalad, towards the head; caudad, towards the tail (also f-)

adipo- fat

adventit- coming to

aegopod- goat-foot

aestiv- (L) summer

affer- carrying to

agrest- rural, wild

agro(st)- field

ala(i)- (L.) wing (alar, alate, aliform, alisphenoid)

alb(i, u)- (L) white (albino)

allant- sausage

allium garlic

alopec- fox

altissim- tall

alve- pit, socket

alveol? (L) to walk

amb-(L.) both, on both sides (ambivalent, amboceptor)

ambly- blunt

ambul(a)- (L) walk (amble, ambulatory)

ammo- sand

amnio- fetal envelope

amoeb- change

amphi- (G) both (sides of) (Amphineura)

amplex- clasping

ampulla- flask

amygdala- almond shaped organ

amyl- (L) starch (amylase)

an- (G) not, without (anuria)

ana- up, back, again

anatol- east

Anagallis- delightful

anchus- bend, bay

andr(o)- (G) male, man (androgen)

anemo- wind

angi- vessel

angul- angle

angusti- narrow

ankylo- stiff jointed

annu- annual

annul- (L) a small ring (Annelida)

anom(o)- (G) lawless, irregular, abnormal, unusual (Anomura)

anser- geese

ante- (L.) before, in front of (antebrachium, antebellum)

anth(o)- (G) flower  (Anthozoa)

anthr(o) anthrop(o)- (G) human, man (anthropology)

anti- (G) against, opposite

antr- cave

apex, apic- tip, point (apex)

apo- separate, from

aqu-aqua- (L.) water (aquarium, aquatic, aqueous humor)

aguilin- eagle-beaked

arach- spider

arbor(i)- (L.) tree (Arbor Vitae, arboreal, arboretum)

arc- (L.) arch, bow, bent (arciform, Arcopetera, arcuate)

arch(ae/i)- (L) ancient, first, beginning, primitive (archaeology)

arct(i/o)- north, bear

are- (L.) area, open space (a. opaca, areolar)

aren(i)- (L) sand, sandy (arena)

-aria (L.) suffix denoting "like" or "connected with" - (Utricularia)

-arium suffix denoting place of a thing (aquarium, herbarium)

arg(en/lyr) (L.) argent-silver (argentaffin, argentine)

arthro- (G) joint (arthritis)

artic- jointed

artio- even-numbered

arundin- reed-like

asc- (G) sac, sack, back (ascon)

ascendens-(L.) ascending, rising, going up (aorta ascendens)

asper- rough

aspid- shield

ast(e)r- (G) star (asteroid, aster)

astrag- dice (originally a knuckle bone)

-ata (L)  neuter plural ending of perfect participle used as suffix to the name of some structure and signifying a group of organisms characterized by that structure (Chordata, Vertebrata)

ater, atra- black

Atlas= a Titan (mythical giant) who supported the world on his shoulders

atr(ium,a)- (L.) vestibule, entrance, room (atrial, atriopore)

atri(o)- (G-L) ear (auricle, auricular)

Atropos= one of the Fates who cut the thread of life

aur- (L.) gold gold (aureus, Aurococcus)

aur- (L.) 1. aur (auroduct, Aurophysa); 2. ear (auropuncture)

auricul- (L.) dim of auris - ear (auricle, auricular)

austral- southern

auto- (G) self  (automobile, autotrophic)

aux- grow

av(i)- (L.) aves, bird

axis- (L.) axis, axle-tree (axial, epaxial, hypaxial)

azyg- unpaired




baca- small berry

baccatus- berried

bacter-, bactr- (G) same (bacterium)

baena- walking

balan- acorn

barb- beard

basi(s,es)- (G) at the bottom, base (basilar, basipodite)

basidi-(G) pedestal (basidium, Basidiomycetes, basidiospore)

basil- (G) king, royal, important (basilic, Basiliscus)

bath-, bathy- (G) depth or height (Bathornis, bathysphere)

bat(is) skate, ray

bdella- sucker

bell- pretty

benth(o) – (G) depth of the sea – (benthic)

bi- (L.) two, double,  twice (bisiliac, bilateral, binocular, biped)

bi(ola)- (G) life (biology)

blast(o)- (G) germ, bud, sprout (blastula, blastoderm, osteoblast)

bol –(G) - to throw – (anabolism)

bore- north (boreal)

botry- small bunch of grapes

bov- ox

brachium(a)- (L) arm (brachial, brachio-)

brachy- (G) short (brachydactyly, brachycephalic)

brady- (G) slow (bradycardia)

branch (o) -  G - arm - brachiopoda

branch(io)??- (G) gill,  air passage (brachia?, (branchia, branchial, Lamellibranch, branchio-)

branchi??(brachi?) – (G)  air passage

brevis- (L) short  (caput breve, breviflex, breviradiate)

brizo- to nod

bromo- oats, broom, shadow

bronch(us)- (G) windpipe, air tubes (bronchial, bronchoscope)

bryo- (G) moss (bryology, Bryophyta, Bryozoa)

bucca(i,o?)- (L) cheek or mouth cavity (buccal)

bulbos- bulbous

bulla- bubble, flask

bullat- wrinkled

buno- hill

bursa(ae)- (L) pouch, purse (B. omentalis, bursate, bursitis)




cac- (G) bad (cachexia, cacophony)

caduci- temporary

caec- (L) blind (caecum)

caen(o) (cene, kaen, ken)- (G) new, recent (Cenozoic, caenozoic)

caerul- sky blue 

caespit- tufted 

calam- reed, aspen 

calc(i)- (L) lime, stone 

calli- beautiful

callos callous 

calor- heat 

calyx cup, chalice

camp- field 

campanula bell

cani- dog 

cap(it)- (L) head (capital)

capill- hair 

capsella- small box

card(i,o)- (G) heart (cardiac)

carin- keel

carn(i)- (L) flesh (carnivore)

carotid- producing stupor

carp(o)- (L) seed, wrist (carpus)

cary- nut 

cat(a,o)- (G) downwards (catabolism, catalyst) 
 Also spelled kata

caud(o,a)- (L) tail (caudal)

cav- hollow 

cele- (G) tumor, hernia (celosomia, hydrocele)

cello- (G) belly (celiac, cellotomy) Also coelio

cen- (G) empty, void (cenosis) Also ken-(kenophobia)

cene-(kene)- (G) recent (cenogenesis, pliocene)

centi- hundred 

centr (i,o) - L - center - centrosome

centrum- (G) center (centrifuge, centroacinar)

ceph(al(e,o))- (G) head 
(cephalopod, cephalic, encephalon)

cera(s)(t)- horn

cerc(a,o)- (G) horns, lobes, short tail 

cerc (a,o) - G - tail of beast – cercaria

cerebro- brain

cerv- neck

ch(e)ir- hand

chaero- to please

chaet(e,i,o)- (G) bristle, hair (chaetognatha, Oligochaeta)

chamae- on ground 

chel- turtle 

chel (i,o) - claw – chela

cheno- goose 

chiasm- crossing

chil(o)- (G) lip 
 (chilognathouranoschisis, Chilomastix)

chir (o) – G – hand (chiropractor, chiropodist, chirurgeon, Chiroptera)

chiton – G – a tunic – chiton, chitin

chlamy- outer garment

chlor(o)- (G) green 
(chloroplast, chlorophyll)

choan(o)- (G) funnel (choanocyte)

chond(r,ro)- (G) cartilage, granular (chondrocyte) 

chord- (G) cord, string (notochord) 

chorion membrane 

chrom(o), chromato- (G) color 
(chromatophore, chromosome, chromatin, achromatic)

chrys- golden 

chyl- fluid 

chym- juice 

cili- (L) eyelash 

ciner- ashen, grey 

cipit- head 

circum- around

cirr- tentacle (originally curl) 

cl(e)ist- closed 

clad- branch

clast- broken 
clav- key 
cleid- key

cleithr- bar, key 
clin- bed, recline 
cloaca sewer 

clitell – L – a pack saddle – clitellum

cloaca – L – a sewer

coccus berry, grain 

cochl- shell 

coel(i,o)- (G) hollow 
(coelenteron, coelom, Coelenterata) same as cello.

coen(o) – G – common – coenosarc

col(on) large intestine 

coll- neck 

collat- borne together 

colous – L – inhabiting

columella little column 

com- (L) with, together (commensal)

commis- sent out 

communis- colonial 

commutat- changed 

compact- compact

compress- flattened 

con- with

conch- shell 

condyl- knuckle

cono- cone 

contra- opposite 

convolvo- to entwine

cop– G – oar – copepoda

copro- dung 

cora(xlg)- raven 

corb- basket 

cord- heart 

corium- leather 

corn(i)- (G) horn (cornified) 

coron- crown 

corp- body

cort- bark

cost- rib 

cotyl- cup

cox- (o) – L – hip – coxopodite

crani(o)- (L) skull (cranium)

crass- thick

crep- shoe

cribi- sieve

cric- ring

crispus curled

crist- crest

crosso- fringe, tassel

cru(rals)- shank

cruci- cross-like 

crypt(o)- (G) hidden (cryptology, cryptic, crypt)

cten(o)- (G) comb (ctenidum)


cusp- lance, point

cuti- skin 
cyan- blue

cyano– G – dark blue – hemocyanin

cycl(o)- (G) circular, round (bicycle)

cyno- dog 

cyst(i,o)- (G) capsule, bladder (cystic, sporocyst)

cyt(o)- (G) cell,  hollow (cytology, leucocyte, cyton, cytoplasm)




dactyl(o)- (G) finger (pterodactyl)

dasy- shaggy

deca – G – t en – Decapoda

deci- ten

de(cid)- (L) falling off, down, from, off (deciduous)

decuss- cross banding

deka- ten

delph- womb

delphis- dolphin

demi- half

dendr(o)- (G) tree, bush (dendrite)

dent(s,l)- (L) tooth (dental)

derm(o), dermat- (G) skin, hide (dermatology, dermal, dermis, dermatome, pachyderm)

dero- persisting

desmo- band

deut- second

dextro- right

di(a)- (G) two, double (dioecious)

dia- (G) through (diathermy, dialysis, diaphragm, diarrhea)

didym- twin

digit- finger

din(a,o)- (G) terrible (dinosaur)

diplo- (G) double (diploblastic, diploid, diplomat)

dipso- thirst

dis-, di- (G) apart from, asunder (dissect, diverge)

dissect- deeply cut

dodeca- twelve

-dont- (L) tooth

dorm – L -  to sleep – dormant

dors(i,o)- (L) back (dorsal)

drilus(i)- (G) worm, lizard - combining forms of names of worms, (Megadrili, Microdili) Also crocodilus

drom- quick running (dromedary)

dubi- doubtful

dulci- sweet

duo- two

dur(a)- (L) hard (durable)

dys- (G) difficult, painful, ill (dyspnea, dysgenic, dysfunction)




echino- (G) spiny, hedgehog (Echinodermata,  echinous)

echis- viper

eco- house

ecto, ec- (G) outside, out of (ectoderm, ecdysis, ectopic, ectoplasm) Also for oec

effer- carrying away

effusus- loosely spreading

ejacul- throw out

elasmo- plate, flat

elat- tall

-ell- diminutive

em- (G) in (empyema)

embio- living

embol- thrown in

emys- (G) tortoise - prefix and suffix of names (Emysuchus, Graptemys)

en- (G) in (encapsulate, encysted)

endo- (G) inside (endoderm, endoplasm, endocrine)

engy- narrow

ensi- sword

enteron – G – a gut

ento, enter- (G) inside

eo- (G) dawn, east (Eocene, Eoanthropus, eocene, eolith)

epi- (G) upon, on top of  (epidermis, epinephrine, epistasis)

equi- horse, equal

erect- upright

erythr(r,ro)- (G) red, reddish (erythrocyte, erythrophyl, erythrophage)

esculent- edible

eso – G –n to carry, bear – esophagus

ethm- (G) sieve, strainer (ethmo-, ethmoid)

ethn(i,o)- (G) people, race (ethnic, ethnology)

eu- (G) good, well, very, true, exceedingly (Eutheria, eugenic)

eury- wide

ex- (G) out of, from, out (exostosis, excurrent)

exiguus- slender

ex(o)- (L,G?) outside, on the outside (exocrine, exoskeleton)

extens- draw out

extra- beyond

extrins- coming from





fab- bean

falc- sickle-shaped

fallax- false

fasc(ic)- bundle

fatuus- foolish, useless

feli- cat

fer- (L) carry, bear (porifera)

ficar- fig-like

fil- (L) thread, filament

fistul- hollow, tube

flacc- flabby

flav- yellow

flexu- wavy

flocculus- lock of wool

fluitans- floating

foen- hay

foetid- foul smelling

foli- leaf

fontan- fountain

foramen(i)- (L) opening, hole, perforation (foraminifera)

fornix- vault

fovea- shallow round depression

fruticans- shrubby

fund- to pour

furc(ul)- fork




gal- milk

-gale- (G) weasel, martin, cat - suffix of names of cat-like animals (Spilogale, Boreogale; also Galeodes)

gall- of France

gam (o) – G – marriage, wife – (gamete, gametophyte, cryptogram, monogamy)

gangli- (G) knot (ganglion)

gano- shining

gast(e)r(o)- (G) stomach,  pouch (gastropod,  gasterangiemphraxis, gastro-, gastrula)

ge(o)- (G) earth (geology, geotropism)

gemin- twins

gemm- bud

genu- knee, joint

gen-, geno-, -geny, genesis (G) bring to life, create, make (gene, genetics, genotype, parthenogenesis, sporogenous, zymogen)

genesis – G – a beginning, to be born

geranium- crane

gerro- shield

gladi- sword

glen- socket

glia(glea?)- (G) glue (mesoglea)

glom(er)- (L) half of yam?, a ball (glomerulus)

glo(ss/tt) (glottis)- (G) tongue (proglottid)

glut- sticky

gl(uly)c- glyc (o,y) – G – sweet – glycogen

glypt- carved, engraved

gnaph- wool

gnath(o)- (G) jaw (Gnathostomata)

goni- angle

gon(o)- (G) seed, sperm, sexual (gonad)

gracil- slender

gram- (G) writing (diagram, electrocardiogram)

gram- of grass

graph(y)- (G) writing (kymograph)

gymn- (G) naked (gymnasium)

gyn, gynec- (G) woman, wife (gynander, gynecology)

gyr- turning (gyrate)




haem(o,ato)- (G) blood (hematology)

hal- salty

hal – L – to breathe – inhale

hallu(x/ci)- big toe

hamat- hook

hapl(o)- (G) single, simple (haploid, haplotype)

hasta(t)- spear-tip shape

hect- hundred

heira- hawk

helios, helio- (G) sun (heliotropism, Heliotropium, Heliozoa)

helm(inth)- (G) worm (Platyhelminthes)

helo- wart

hemi- (G) half, incomplete  (hemisphere,  Hemichordata, hemiazygos, Hemiptera)

hepa(r/t)- (G) liver (hepatitis,  hepatic, hepatectomy)

hepta- seven

hetero- (G) different, other (heterodont, heterosexual, heterosis, heterozygote, heterodont)

hex- (G) six (Hexacorallia)

hibem- winter

hippo- horse

hirudin – L – leech – Hirudinea

hirsut- hairy

hispid- bristly

histo – G – tissue, web – (histology, histocyte, (also histiocyte), histogenesis)

histri- actor

holo- (G) complete, whole, entire (holoblastic, holophytic, holozoic, holism)

holothuri _ G –sea cucumber – Holothuroidea

hom(in)- (L) man, (Homo)

hom(o)- (G) the same, alike (homologous, homogenize, homozygote, Homoptera)

homeo- (G) like (homeopath)

homal- flat

hormon- that which excites

hortens- of gardens

humus- ground

hyal- (G) glassy (hyaline)

hydr(o)- G – water – (hydration, hydrolysis, hydrophobia, anhydrous, hydrophilic)

hyemal- winter

hyo- U-shaped

hyper- (G) above, over,  excessive (hypertonic, hypertrophy)

hypn- (G) sleep (hypnosis)

hypo- (G) beneath, under,  lower, deficient (hypotonic, hypoglossal, hypostasis)

hystero- (G) womb, uterus (hysterectomy, hysteropexy, hysteria)





ichthy(o)- (G) fish (ichthyology)

-ida- like

-idae- ending of zoological family names

ileum- twisted

impar- unpaired

in- in, not

-in- diminutive

-inae- ending of zoological sub-family names

incarnat- flesh coloured

incis- cutting in

incus- anvil

inermis- unarmed

inflexis- rigid

infra- under

inter- (L) between (intercostals)

intercal – L – inserted = intercalated

intr(a)- (L) within, inside (intrinsic)

iod- violet

-iola- diminutive

iris- rainbow

is(o)- (G) equal (isotonic, isotonic, isosmotic, isomer, anisogamy)

-ite, -ites, -it is (G) 1) division of body (somite) 2) salt or ester of an -ous acid (sulphite)

iter- passage

-ites- (G) suffix denoting pertaining to (ascites); fossil form (Ammonites)

-it is- (G) suffix denoting inflammation (appendicitis)

-ize- (G) denominative verb form used as suffix (catheterize, anaesthetize).  Also spelled ise




jug- (L) to join, marry, yoked together (conjugate)

jungoljunc- to bind




ket- ketone

kerat – G – horn, keratin

kilo- thousand

kineto– (G) moveable, motion – kinetochore




labi- (L) lip(s) (labia)

labyrinth- tortuous passage

lacer- torn (lacerate)

lacrim- tears

lact(i,e)- (L) milk (lactic, lactose)

lacuna- space

laevo- left

lagena- flask

lamell(a,i)- (L) leaf, layer (lamellar, lamellibranch)

lan(at)- wool

lanceol(at)- lance-shaped

lati- broad

lecith(al)- (G) egg yolk (lecithin)

lemm- skin, husk

lens- lentil, bean

leo(n)- lion

lepid- scale

lepto- slender

leuc-, leuko- (G) white leucocyte, leucopenia, leukemia

levator- lifter

lign- wood (lignin)

ligul- strap-shaped

lin- line (linear)

ling- tongue (linguistic)

lip(i,o)- (G) fat (lipid, liposuction)

lith(i,o)- (G) stone (otolith, lithograph, lithic)

log(y), log- (G) discourse, word, study, doctrine (zoology, analog(ue), biology, homologous)

loph- crest

lumen- cavity

luna- moon

lupus wolf

lute- yellow

lymph- clear water

lysis, lys, lyt- loosen, unfasten, dissolve (analysis, proteolytic)





-ma, mata- (G) indicating the result of an action (empyema, traumatic)

macr(o)- (G) large (macromere, macrocyte, macrophage, macronucleus)

macul(a)- (L) spot, stain (immaculate)

magni- large

maj- greater

mala- cheek

malleus- hammer, mallet

mamm(a)- (L) breast, teat (Mammalian,  mamma)

mandib- (L) to chew?, lower jaw (mandible)

manu- hand

maritim- of the sea

marsupi(um)- (G) pouch (Marsupialia)

masseter- chewer

mast- nipple

masti (c,g) – G – whip – Mastigophora

mat(e)ri- mother

maxi- large

maxilla(a)- (L) jaw, jaw bone (maxilliped)

maxim- greatest

meatus- passage

medi- medium

medull- marrow

mega, meg, megal(o)- (G) large, great (megaladon, megaspore, megalomania, acromegaly)

mel(l)i- honey

melan- (G) black (melanin, melanophore)

menin(x,g)- (G) membrane (meninges)

meno- moon

mer- part

mes(en,o)- (G) middle (mesentery, mesoderm)

meta- (G) after, with?, beyond, change or transformation (metathorax,  metaphysics, metabolism, metamorphosis, metaphase, metencephalon); metabola - combining form referring to type of metamorphosis

meter, metr- (G) measure (thermometer, biometry)

micro(a)- (G) small (microscope,  micron)

milli- thousand

min- smaller

minim- smallest

mio – G – less, smaller –(miolecithal, miocene)

mirabile- wonderful

miss- sent

mito- thread

mixi- mingle

moll(i)- (L) soft (Mollusca)

monil- string of beads

mono- (G) single, one (Monotremata, monosaccharide, monoecious)

montan- of mountains

morph(o)- (G) form, structure (morphology, metamorphosis, polymorphonuclear, amorphous)

motor- mover

muc (o) – L – mucous

multi- many

mural- walls

muri- mouse

muta – L – to change – mutation

myces, mycetes- (G) fungus (mycelium, mycology, mycosis); used both as prefix and suffix in names, e.g., Mycetozoa, Schizomycetes

myel- (G) marrow (myelencephalon, myelin, myelitis, myeloblast, myelocyte, myelogenous, myeloid, poliomyelitis)

my(o), mys- (G) (mutation?) 1) mouse - used as prefix and suffix of names of mouselike animals, e.g. Mysateles, Geomys. Must not be confused with emys (q.v.). 2) muscle (from mouse shape) - endo-, peri-, epimysium, myasthenia, myalgia. Usually in form of myo: myology, myocardium, myotome, myomere, myometrium

myri- countless

myco- mucous, mucus (mycocyte, Mycobacteriaceae)

myx- (G) slime, mucus (Myxinoidei, myxedema, Myxomycetes)

myz- sucker




na(rls)- nose

nar (i) – L – nostril – nares

nas (i) – L – nose nasal

necro- (G) dead (necrosis, necrotic)

necto- swimming

nema- hair

nemoral- in woods

neo- (G) new, recent (neophyte, neopallium, neoplasm)

nephr(i,o)- (G) kidney (nephritis)

neur(i,o)- (G) nerve (nerology)

nictitat- winking

nigr- black

noct – L – night – nocturnal

nomm?, nom – G – law –(taxonomy, autonomic)

non- not

nona- nine

noth- spurious

notho- southern

not(o)- (G) back, south (notochord)

nu(clx)- nut

nuch- back of neck

nucle(nuc(i))- little nut, kernal (nucleus)

nud(i)- (L) naked (nudibranch)

nulli- none

nutans- nodding





obtect- (G) concealed

obturat- closed

obtusi- blunt

occiden- Western

occip- back of head

ocell – L – a little eye – ocellus

oct(o)- (L) eight (octopus)

odont(o)- (L) tooth (odontophore, odontology, homodont, odontoblast)

odor- fragrant

oec, ec (o0 or oiko – G – house – (dioecious, ecology, economy)

oecious- house of

oed(I,o)- (G) swollen, to swell  (edema)

oen- wine

oesoph- gullet

officinal- used in medicine

-oid- (G) like (neuroid, toxoid)

olecran- skull of elbow

oleo- oily

olfact- (L) smelling, to smell (olfactory)

olig(o)- (G) few (Oligochaeta, Oligocene, oligodendroglia, oligodynamic)

oliva- olive

omaso- paunch

oment- fat skin

omm(a)a(to)- (G) eye (ommatidium)

omo- shoulder

omphalo- navel

ont(o)- (G) existing,  being (ontogeny, ontology, paleontology, ontogeny)

oo- ošn- (G) egg (oogonium) (oštheca, cumulus ošphorus)

op(t)- eye ophithalmo- (ophthalmoscope)

opercul(I,um)- (L) little cover, cover, lid (operculum)

ophi- snake

ophthal(mo)- (G) eye (ophthalmic)

opisth(o)- (G) behind, at the back (opisthobranchia, opisthocoelus, opisthotic, Opisthocesmia)

-opsis- (G) sight, appearance - suffix to animal names signifying similarity to another animal - Doridopsis, similar to Doris

opoter- either

or- (L) mouth (oral)

orbi- circle

orch- testicle

oriental- Eastern

ornith(o), ornis, ornith- (G) bird (ornithology, Alcippornis, ornithology, Neo-ornithes)

ortho- (G) straight (Orthoptera, orthogenesis, Orthoptera, orthopedist)

-osis- (G) denoting a condition (leucocytosis, dermatomycosis)

os(ti)- (L) mouth

os(s/te), osteo- (L) bone (osteology, Teleostei)

osti – L – door – ostium

ostrac shell

ot(o)- (G) ear (otolith, otalgia, otic, otology)

ovi- sheep

ov(i,o)- (L) egg (oviduct)

oxys, oxus- (G) sharp, pointed (Amphioxus, oxygen, Oxyura)




pachy- (G) thick (pachyderm)

paed- (G) child (paedognesis)

palin- (G) again, back (palingenesis)

palae, pale(o)- (G) old, ancient (paleontology, paleocene)

palli(um)- mantle

pallid- pale

palp – L – a feeler (palpitate)

palustri- in marshes

pan, pant- (G) all panspermy, pangenesis, panthothenic)

par(a)- (G) near, beside (parapodia, parathyroid, parachordal, Paranoia); combining form of names denoting close relationship to principal form - Parapeneus

parie(t)- (L) wall (parietal)

partheno – G – virgin (parthenogenesis)

path-, pathy- (G) suffer, pain (pathology, sympathetic)

parvi- little

patella- small dish

patens- spreading

pauro- (G) little, few - combining form of names denoting fewness of some structure - Pauropoda

pect(or)- chest

pectin- comb-like

ped(i)- (L) foot, child (pedal,  pediatrics, pedagogue)

pelag( i,o ) – G – the sea - pelagic

pell (i) – L – skin – pellicle

pellucid- shining through

pene- almost

penia- (G) poverty, reduced amount (leucopenia, penury)

pent- G – five – pentadactyl

per(i)- (G) through, beyond, around (periosteum, pericardum, perineurium, perimetrium)

peregrin- foreign

peri- (G) around (perimeter,  perigrine falcon)

persic- peach

petr- rock

phaeo- dark

phag(o)- (G) eat, devour (phagocyte, phagocytosis, bacteriophage, anthropophage)

phalan(g/x)- close formation of troops

phalar- shining

phaner(o)- (G)  visible, manifest (Phanerogam, phaneroscope)

pharmac- (G) drug (pharmaceutical, pharmacist, pharmacology)

phase- (G) appearance - one of the stages of development - metaphase; a distinct portion of a heterogenous system, e.g. oil and water

pheno- (G) appearance (phenotype, phenology)

pher- carry

phil- (G) love, loving (eosinophil, hydrophil, hemophilia, philanthropy)

phloe- tree bark

-phob- (G) hating (hydrophobe, hydrophobia, Helophobius)

phor(o)- (G) carry, bearer of (chromatophore)

pho(s/to)- (G) light (photosynthesis, photoscopic)

phragm- fence

phren- (G) 1) diaphragm (diaphragm). 2)mind (phrenology, aphrenia)

phyl- (G) tribe, race (phylum, phylogeny, phyletic)

phyll- (G) leaf (phyllotaxis, chlorophyll)

physa- bladder

physio- (G) 1) nature, constitution (physics, physiology, physique 2) growth (epiphysis, hypophysis, apophysis)

phyto- (G) plant (phytopathology, Thallophyta, saprophytic)

pil- hair

pinea- pine cone

pinnat- feather-shaped

pisum- pea

pisc- fish

plac- plate, tablet

plagio- oblique

plan- flat

platy- (G) flat, broad (Platyhelminthes, Platypus, amphiplatyan)

plec(o/t)- twist, pluck

pleio- (G) more (pleiocene, pleiotropia)

pleist- (G) most (pleistocene)

pleo- (G) more (pleomorphism, pleonasm, pleochromatic

plesio- (G) near (plesiomorphism, Plesiosaurus)

pleth- full

pleur- (G) side (pleura, pleural, pleurisy,somatopleure)

plex- interwoven

plica- fold

plum- feather

pneu(mo/st), pneuma, pneumat- (G) air, lung, breath (pneumatic, pneumon [lung])

pod- (G) foot (pseudopod, pseuodpodium, Cephalopod)

pogo- beard

poikilo- (G) manifold (poikilothermous, poikilocyte)

polio- grey

polit- polished

poll(ex)- thumb

poly- (G) many (polybasic, polychromatic, polymer, polymorphic, polyp); poly and pous - foot; Combining form of names, meaning many of some structure (Polyodontidae)

pons- bridge

porc- pig

porphyr- purple

porta- gate

post- L – after – posterior

potam- river

potero- drinking cup

praeco- early

pratens- in meadows

pre- (L) before (precede)

prim(i)- (L) first (primary)

pro- (G) in front of, before (prostomium, prophase, pronephros)

proct- anus

procumbens- lying flat

profund- deep

proliger- bear offspring

prom- first

proso- front

prostratus- lying flat

prot(o)- (G) first, primitive (protoplasm, protein, protozoa)

prote- (G) Proteus, a god who could change his form at will - protean, Proteo- combining form of names denoting changeable shape (Proteomyxa, Proteosoma)

prunus- plum

psamma- sand

pseud- (G) false (pseudopod, pseudostratified); combining form of names signifying not true form (Pseudopallene)

psyche- (G) mind (psychic, psychobiology, psychopathic, psychosis)

psycho- mind

psychro- cold

pter-, ptery-, pterid- (G) wing, fern (pterygoid, Pteridophyta, Crossopterygii, Pterodactyl)

-ptera- (G) suffix denoting type of wing of many orders of insects (Diptera); also winged mammals (Chiroptera)

ptyal- saliva

pubescens- downy

pubi- sexually mature

pulmo- (L) lung (pulmonary)

pungens- pungent

pusill- very small (pusillanimous)

pycn- (G) thick, dense (pycnidium, pycnotic)

pyel- (G) pan, pelvis (pyelitis, pyelogram)

pyg(o)- (G) rump, buttocks (pygalgia, Pygopodes, cytopyge, steatopygous)

pyl- (G) gate (Thermopylae)

pyo-, py- (G) (pyemia, pyogenic, Pyococcus, pyorrhea)

pyr(o)- (G) heat, fire  (pyrexis, pyrogenic, pyromania, pyromania, pyrophobia)

pyrus- pear




quadr- (L) four (quandrangle)

quarter- (L) four

quin(t/que)- five




rach- spine

radi- root

radi – (o) – L – a ray – Radiolaria

ram- branching

ran- frog

rapa- turnip

raph(e)- (G) seam (raphe anococcygea, raphe scroti)

-raphy- (G) suturing, stitching (cardiorrhaphy)

rect- straight

reflex- bent back

ren- kidney

repens- crawling

reptans- crawling

retic- network

retina- little net

retro- behind, backward

rhabd- rod

rhach- spine

rhage- (G) tear, rent, burst (hemorrhage)

rhe- (G) flow (rheobase, rheotropism); when preceded by a short vowel another r added: diarrhea, catarrh, hemorrhoids

rhex- (G) rupture (cardiorhexis)

rhin- nose, snout

rhiz(o)- (G) root (rhizome, mycorrhiza, Rhizopoda)

rhod(o)- (G) red (rhododendron, rhodopsin, rose)

rhynch- snout

-rrh- flow (catarrh)

rode- gnaw

rogos- wrinkled

rostr(i)- (L) beak, prow (rostrum)

rota- tum, wheel (rotation)

rub(e)r- (L) red

rumen- throat





sacchar- sugar

saccul- little sac

sacr- sacred

sagitta- arrow

sal- salt

salpinx, salping- (G) trumpet - the Fallopian and Eustachian tubes (salpingitis, salpingocyesis)

sanguini- bloody (cheerfully optimistic)

sanus(a,um)- (G) healthy - sane (sanity)

sapon- soapy

sapr- (G) rotten (sapremia, saprine, saprophyte, saprozoic)

sarc, sarx- (G) flesh (Sarcodina, sarcoma, sarcomere, sarcoplasm, sarcostyle)

sativus- cultivated

saur(o)- (G) lizard (dinosaur)

scala- ladder (to scale)

scalene- uneven

scaph- (G) anything hollow, bowl, ship, skiff (scaphocephalic, scaphoid)

schizo- split

scler- (G) hard (sclera, sclerectomy, sclerosis, sclerotome)

scop- (G) gaze, small owl, broom, shadow, to see (scopophobia, microscope)

scut- shield

scyph- cup

seba- tallow, wax

sect- cut

segetum- in cornfields

selen- moon

sella- saddle, seat

semi- half

sepsis, septic- (G) putrefaction, rotting, infection (antiseptic, septicemia)

sept- seven, wall

ser(olu)- any body fluid

serot- late

serrat- saw-toothed

sesemo- (G) seed of sesame plant (sesemoid)

set- hair

sex- six

schisto- (G) split, cleaved (schistocyte, Schistosoma)

schiz- (G) split, cleave (shizaxon, Schizomycetes, schizophrenia)

sial- (G) saliva (sialaden, sialagogue, sialorrhea)

sider- (G) iron (siderism, siderophil, siderosis)

sigma- (G) letter s shape - sigma reaction, sigmoid flexure

simi- monkey

sinus- hollow, bay

sipho- tube

sito- (G) food (sitology, stiotoxin, sitotropism, parasite)

skia- (G) shadow (skiagram, skiascopy, skiodan)

sol- (L) sun (solar)

soma(t)- (G) body (somatic, somatology, somatoplasm, somatopleure, somite, chromosome)

somni- sleep

specios- showy

sperm(at)- (G) seed (sperm-aster, spermatic, spermatid, spermatocyte, Spermatophyta, spermatozoon, spermatozoid)

sphen- (G) wedge (sphenoid, sphenopalatine, sphenotic)

sphinct- (G) closing, that which binds, band - pyloric sphincter, sphincter pupilae, sphincteroscope

sphygmo- (G) pulse (sphygmograph, sphygmomanometer, asphyxia)

spinos- spiny

spir- (G) coil (spiral, spireme, Spirochaeta, Spironema)

splanch- (G) internal organs (splanchnic, splanchnopleure)

spondyl- (G) vertebra (spondylarthritis, spondylosis, spondylous)

spor- (G) seed (sporangium, spore, sporogeny, Sporozoa)

squalid- squalid

squam- scale (Squamata)

squarros- spreading at tips

stae(rlt)- fat

sta(silt)- standing

stasis, stat- (G) standing still (hemostasis, hemostat, static)

stadium- (G) a measure - stage of disease, interval in metamorphosis

staphyl- (G) bunch of grapes, the uvula (staphylitis, Staphylococcus)

steg- covering

stell- star

steno- (G) narrow (stention, stenopeic, stenosis)

stear-, steat- (G) fat (steapsin, stearin, steatopygous)

stereo- (G) solid (stereocilium, stereoisomer, stereoscope)

steril- sterile

stern(um)- (G) breastbone, chest (sternebra, sternocleidomastoid)

stom(a, at, ati, ato, o) – G – mouth – stomadeum

strat- layer

strept- twisted

stetho- (G) chest (stethemia, stethograph, stethoscope)

stoma, stomata, -stomy- (G) mouth (stomodaeum, enterostomy

strictus- upright, stiff

stigma, stigmat- (G) mark (astigmatism, stigmatic, stigmatodermia)

strepto- (G) twisted, curved (strepticemia, Streptococcus, Streptothrix, streptotrichal)

strigos- having stiff bristles

strobil – G – anything twisted – strobila

stroph- turning

styl- (G) column, pillar, beam (style, styliform, styloid, stylus)

sym, syn- (G) together (symbiosis, symphysis, syncytium, synapse, synthesis)

syrinx, syring- (G) pipe, tube (Syringa, syringe, syringomyelia)

sub- (L) below, under (sublingual)

sucr- sugar

sulc- furrow

super- (L) beyond, over (supercede)

supin- lying back

supra- (L) above (suprarenal)

sutur- seam (suture)

sym- with (symbiotic)

syn- with

syrin(glx)- pipe

sys- with




tach(y)- (G) fast, swift, speed (tachometer, tachycardia)

tact- (L) touch (tactile)

taenia- ribbon

talus- ankle

tapetum- carpet

tard- late

tarsus- ankle

tarsus- (G) wicker-work frame - instep (tarsale, metatarsal, tarsotibial)

tax(i, is) – G arranging, arrangement, order (phyllotaxis, taxonomy)

tect- covered (protect, tectonic)

tegmen- covering

tel(e/o)- far, end, distant (telecephalon, telephase or telophase)

teleo- complete

temno- cut

tenacul- holding

tentaculi – L – a feeler – tentacle

tentor- spread like a tent

tenuis- slender

tera-, terat- (G) monster (teratism, teratology, teratosis)

ter(ti)- three

teres- round

tetanus- (G) tension (tetanic, tetanotoxin, tetany)

tetr(a)- (G) (tetrabasic, tetrad, tetravalent)

textilis- of textiles

thalam- (G) chamber, bed, bedroom (thalamencephalon, thalamic, thalamocortical)

thalass- sea

thallus- (G) young shoot (Thallophyta, thallospore)

theca(ae)- (L) case, covering, sheath, a box (theca folliculi, thecitis, thecodont, oštheca)

thel- (G) nipple, female (thelitis, thelium, epithelium)

ther- (G) wild beast (Therapsids, Theromorphia, -therium); English: -there(s); combining form of names of mammals (Eutheria, Titanotherium or Titanothere)

therm- (G) heat (therm, thermal, thermometer, thermopile, thermos, isotherm, homothermous)

thero- breast, mammal

thio- (G) sulphur (thioacid, Thiobacillus, thiophilic)

thorax, thorac- (G) breastplate, chest (thoracic, thoracolumbar)

thrix, trich- (G) hair (Ulothrix, Trichina, trichinosis)

thrombus- (G) clot (thrombin, thrombogen, thrombosis)

thyme- (G) (pro. time) (thymene, thymol)

thymus- (G) excrescence, gland (thymectomy, thymocyte)

thyre(o)- (G) large shield (thyreoid or thyroid, thyroxin)

tinctori- of dyes (tincture of iodine)

tome, tomy- (G) cut (myotome,microtome, anatomy, appendectomy)

tomentos- densely woolly

torn- cut

torpe- numb

tox-, toxic- (G) poison (toxin, toxoid, intoxication, toxicology)

toxo- arrow, dart

trab- beam

trachy- rough

trago- goat

trans- across

trapez- (G) four sided, table, a table or counter (medial trapezius, trapezium, trapezoid)

trauma, traumat- (G) wound (traumatic, tamuatism, traumatology)

trema- hole

tremulans- trembling

tri- three

trich- hair

trivialis- trivial

troch- wheel

trop- (G) turning (tropism, geotropic, heliotrope)

troph(y)- (G) feed, nourishment (trophic, trophoblast, trophoderm, atrophy, hypertrophy, dystrophy)

tussi- cough (pertussis)

tympanum- (G) drum (typanal, tympanic, n. chorda tympani, tympano-)

typhlo- (G) blind, cecum (typhlosis, typhlosole)





uliginosus- in marshes

-ul- diminutive

ulo- wooly

ultra- above

umbilic- navel

un- one

unc- hook

ungui- nail, claw

ungul- hoof, claw

urens- bum

ur- (G) tail (uropod, Urochordata, Anura)

ur- (G) urine (urea, uremia, urine, urology, ureter, urethra)

uro- tail

urs- of bears

utricul- little skin bag

uv(ela)- grapes





vagina- sheath

vagus- wandering

vas(o)- (L) vessel (vas deferens, vasomotor)

velum- veil

ven- (L) vein (vein)

ventr- (L) belly (ventral)

verd- green

veris- true

verm- worm

vern- spring

versi- various

vesic- blister

vesper- evening, western

vill- shaggy hair, velvet

virens- green

visc- organs of body cavity

vita- life

vitell- yolk

vitr- glass

volv – L – to roll – revolve

vora- devour

vulgaris- common

vulp- fox





xanth- (G) yellow (xanthein, Xanthium, xanthophyll)

xen(o)- (G) stranger (xenia, xenoparasite, Xenopsylla, xenophobia)

xer- (G) dry (xerasia, exrophilic, xerophyte, xerosis)

xiph(i)- (G) sword (xiphisternum, xiphocostal, xiphoid)

xyl- (G) wood (xylan, xylem, Xylocarpus, xylol)





zo(a)- (G) animal, living being (zolatria, zoic, zoogenesis, zoology, Protozoa, speratozoon, azoic)

zoon– (G) animal  (zoology)

zon(a)- (G) girdle, belt, zone

zyg- (G) yoke (zygapophysis, zygoma, zygote, azygos, homozygous)

zym- (G) yeast (zymase, zymogen, enzyme)


English Suffixes


able, ible- capable, agreeable, edible, visible

ade- result of action-blockade

age- act of, state of, result of- storage, wreckage, damage

al- relating to- gradual, manual, natural

algia- pain- neuralgia, nostalgia, myalgia

an, ian- native of, relating to- African, riparian,

ance, ancy- action, process, state- assistance, allowance, defiance

ary, ery, ory- relating to, quality, place where- aviary, bravery, dormitory

cian- possessing a specific skill or art- magician, physician,

cy- action, function- hesitancy, prophecy, normalcy

cule, ling- very small- molecule, ridicule, animalcule, duckling, sapling

dom- quality, realm- freedom, kingdom, wisdom

ee- one who receives the action- refugee, nominee, lessee

en- made of, to make- silken, frozen, wooden

ence, ency- action, state of, quality- difference, confidence, urgency, agency

er, or- one who, that which- baker, miller, professor

escent- in the process of- adolescent, senescence, putrescence

ese- a native of, the language of- Javanese, Japanese, Balinese

esis, osis- action, process, condition- genesis, hypnosis, neurosis, osmosis

ess- female- goddess, lioness, actress

et, ette- small one, group- midget, baronet, sextet, lorgnette

fic- making, causing- scientific, specific

ful- full of- frightful, careful, helpful

fy- make  - beautify, fortify, simplify

hood- order, condition, quality- manhood, adulthood

ic- nature of, like- metallic, acidic, bucolic, simplistic

ice- condition, state, quality- justice, malice

id, ide- a thing connected with or belonging to- fluid, fluoride, bromide

ile- relating to, suited for, capable of- juvenile, senile, purile, missile

ine- nature of- feminine, genuine, medicine

ion, sion, tion- act, result, or state of- cancellation, contagion, infection, crenellation

ish- origin, nature, resembling- foolish, Irish, clownish, impish

ism- system, manner, condition, characteristic- alcoholism, communism, capitalism,

ist- one who, that which- artist, dentist, flautist

ite- nature of, quality of, mineral product- prelate, Mennonite, dynamite, graphite, Israelite

ity, ty- state of, quality- celebrity, captivity, clarity, poverty

ive- causing, making - abusive, exhaustive, abortive

ize, ise- make- emphasize, exercise, bowdlerize, bastardize, idolize, fanaticize

logy- study, science, theory - biology, anthropology, geology, neurology

ly- like, manner of- carelessly, fearlessly, hopelessly

ment- act of, state or, result- containment, contentment, amendment

ness- state of- carelessness, restlessness

nomy- law- autonomy, economy, taxonomy

oid- resembling- asteroid, spheroid, rhomboid, anthropoid

ous- full of, having - gracious, nervous, pompous,

ship- state of, office, quality - assistantship, friendship, authorship

some-  like, apt, tending to- lonesome, lissome, threesome, gruesome

tude- state of, condition of- gratitude, aptitude, multitude

ure- state of, act, process, rank- culture, literature, rupture, rapture

ward- in the direction of- eastward, downward, backward

y- inclined to, tend to- cheery, crafty, faulty