ROMAN COINS
(The 4th & 5th centuries)

Collection L - Not Currently For Sale



VIEW SIMILAR FOR SALE
TETRARCHY DIOCLETIAN MAXIMIANUS AMANDUS
DOMITIUS DOMIT. CONSTANTIUS I THEODORA CHILD
GALERIUS GALERIA VALERIA SEVERUS II MAXIMINUS II
PERSECUTION MAXENTIUS ROMULUS DOM. ALEXANDER
LICINIUS CONSTANTIA LICINIUS JR. VALERIUS VALENS
MARTINIAN CONSTANTINIANS CONSTANTINE I COMMEMORATIVE
FAUSTA HELENA CRISPUS DELMATIUS
HANNIBALLIANUS CONSTANTINE II CONSTANS CONSTANTIUS II
MAGNENTIUS POEMENIUS DECENTIUS NEPOTIAN
VETRANIO CONST. GALLUS JULIAN II HELENA II
JOVIAN WANING VALENTINIAN I VALENS
GALATES PROCOPIUS GRATIAN VALENTINIAN II
THEODOSIUS I AEL. FLACILLA MAGNUS MAX. FLAVIUS VICTOR
EUGENIUS WESTERN HONORIUS CONSTANTINE III
CONSTANS II MAXIMUS SPAIN PRISCUS ATTALUS JOVINUS
SEBASTIANUS CONSTANTIUS III BONIFATIUS JOHANNES
VALENTINIAN III GALLA PLACIDIA LIC. EUDOXIA HONORIA
PETRONIUS MAX, AVITUS MAJORIAN SEVERUS III
RICIMER ALYPIA ANTHEMIUS EUPHEMIA
OLYBRIUS GLYCERIUS GUNDOBAD JULIUS NEPOS
ROMULUS AUG. ODOVACAR EASTERN ARCADIUS
AELIA EUDOXIA THEODOSIUS II EUDOCIA PULCHERIA
MARCIAN LEO I VERINA PATRICIUS
LEO II ZENO ARIADNE BASILISCUS
MARCUS ZENONIS ZENO & LEO LEONTIUS
ANASTASIUS I



THE TETRARCHY:


DIOCLETIAN, 284-305

7951. DIOCLETIAN, 284-305. AR Argentius. /Campgate. Superb example near FDC with full mint lustre with the near inevitable striking line.


10855. DIOCLETIAN, 284-305 As Senior Augustus, AD 305-311/2. AE Follis (27mm, 10.18 g, 6h). Cyzicus mint, 6th officina. Struck AD 305-306. Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding olive branch and mappa / Providentia standing right, receiving olive branch from Quies standing left, holding scepter; S-F//Kc. RIC VI 22a. EF, traces of silvering. Very fine medallic style bust.


MAXIMIANUS (aka MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS), 286-305 (first reign), 306-308 (second reign), 310 (usurpation in Massilia)

10767. MAXIMIANUS, First reign, AD 286-305. AE Medallion (33mm, 18.52 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 286. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / The three Monetae standing left, each holding scales and cornucopia. Gnecchi 14, pl. 127, 3. Good VF, brown surfaces. Rare. Ex Numismatik Lanz 100 (2 November 2000), lot 468.


11674. MAXIMIANUS, as Senior Augustus (1st reign), AD 305-307. AE Follis (28mm, 9.29 g, 6h). Cyzicus mint, 4th officina. Struck AD 305-306. Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding olive branch and mappa / Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, holding branch and leaning on scepter; S-F//KΔ. RIC VI 23b. EF/VF, greenish-brown patina.


AMANDUS, c. 285-286


DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS, c. 296-297 (usurper in Egypt)

11103. DOMITIUS DOMITIANUS. Usurper, AD 297-298. Follis, 297 - 298, Alexandria. 9.67 g. IMP C L DOMITIVS DOMITIANVS AVG. Laureate head right. R-S: GENIO POPV - L - I ROMANI/A/ALE. Genius with Patera and cornucopia standing left; eagle standing to left of feet with spread wings. RIC VI, S. 663, 20 core. Near EF. An exceptional example. Rare.

The revolt of Domitius Domitianus in Egypt destabilized a vitally strategic region by interrupting the grain supply to Rome and opening the possibility of Persian (Sasanian) invasion. For almost a year, Domitius Domitianus controlled Alexandria and its mint, striking aurei and folles, as well as a series of pre-reform imperial Greek denominations.



CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, 293-306

10239. CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, 293-306. AE29 Large Follis. Reverse: Hercules standing. Good VF. Much better than photo with considerable silvering.


THEODORA (Flavia Maximiana Theodora), second wife of Constantius I Chlorus

10757. THEODORA. Died before AD 337. AE (16mm, 1.54 g, 6h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck before April AD 340. Laureate and draped bust right / Theodora as Pietas standing facing, head right, holding child in arms; TRP. RIC VIII 79; LRBC 120. Good VF, brown patina.


CHILD? OF THEODORA AND CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS

10757. THEODORA AND CHILD. Thought to have been born no later than c. 275 - died before AD 337. AE (16mm, 1.54 g, 6h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 1st officina. Struck before April AD 340. Laureate and draped bust right / Theodora as Pietas standing facing, head right, holding child in arms; TRP. RIC VIII 79; LRBC 120. Good VF, brown patina.

The infant child Theodora holds on the reverse of this coin could be one of her 6 children by Constantius I, either Flavius Dalmatius ( - c. 337) (father of the Delmatius listed separately below), Julius Constantius (b. after 289 - d. 337) father of Julian II, Hannibalianus ( - c before 337)(not the King of the same name listed separately below), Anastasia, Flavia Julia Constantia (after 293 - c. 330) wife of Licinius, or Eutropia (-d 350) the mother of Nepotian. However if her birth date above is correct then since this coin is thought to have been struck after Theodora's death in 337 when she must have been aged around 62, but before April 340 the most likely candidate for the child on this coin is uncertain since if the dating is correct she would have been much too old to have had a recent infant. On the other hand her numismatic portraits do not depict as an old woman. So the child on this coin is currently uncertain, possibly a grandchild or possibly a generic depiction of her maternal nature.



GALERIUS, 293-311

10302. GALERIUS, AD 305-311. AE Follis (28mm, 6.31 g, 11h). Alexandria mint, 4th officina. Struck circa AD 308. Laureate head right / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia; Δ/P-R//ALE. RIC VI 72c. Choice EF, pleasing reddish-brown patina, minor obverse die break. Ex. CNG. From the J.S. Wagner Collection.


GALERIA VALERIA, (daughter of Diocletian, wife of Galerius)

11401. GALERIA VALERIA, Augusta, AD 293(?)-311. AE Follis (26mm, 6.49 g, 12h). Cyzicus mint, 4th officina. Struck circa AD 308-309. Draped bust right / Venus standing left, holding apple and adjusting drapery; Δ-*//MKV. RIC VI 46. Good VF, brown patina, light roughness. Provenance: From the Chiltern Collection.


SEVERUS II, 305-307

6644. SEVERUS II. Large module Follis. Cuirassed & helmeted bust with spear over shoulder/Horseman spearing soldier. AEF. Scarce.


10327. SEVERUS II. Large module Follis. Laureate and draped bust right. Reverse: The genius of Rome. Choice EF example with full silvering. Rare this nice.


MAXIMINUS II DAIA, 305-313

10472. MAXIMINUS II DAIA, 305-313 AD. AE Follis, Antioch mint. As Augustus, struck 309-313 AD. Weight: 4.23 g; Size 20 mm. Dark brown patina with hints of silvering, well-executed portrait of Daia, good metal and a beautiful coin all around. Condition: EF. Reference: RIC VI, 164b. Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG; laureate head right. Reverse: GENIO AVGVSTI; Genius standing facing, holding head of Sol in right, cornucopia in left. */AI in fields, ANT in exergue.


CHRISTIAN PERSECUTION ISSUES, 310-313

11416. CHRISTIAN 'PERSECUTION' ISSUE, AD 310-313. Time of Maximinus II. AD 310-313. 15mm (1.83 g, 5h). 'Persecution' issue. Antioch mint. Struck AD 310-313. Tyche seated facing; river-god Orontes swimming below / Apollo standing left, holding patera and lyre; Z//SMA. Vagi 2954; Failmezger 229. Good VF, black patina with earthen highlights. Very rare this nice.

J. van Heesch has provided the latest chronology for these anonymous civic bronzes of the fourth century AD. An active campaign of persecution against local Christians, abetted by Maximinus II, reached its height in Nicomedia, Antioch, and Alexandria. Churches were closed and property was seized from Christians who were expelled from many cities. These three major mint cities struck a series of small bronzes honoring the old Greco-Roman gods - Jupiter, Apollo, Tyche, and Serapis being among them. The persecutions subsided in AD 313, possibly as a result of concerns expressed by Constantine and Licinius, the emperors in the west. Commentary courtesy CNG.



MAXENTIUS, 306-312

8625. MAXENTIUS, 306-312 AD. Gilded large module Follis, Carthage mint, AD 307. RIC 53, HRIC.17($300-$1000 list). Laureate bust r./CONSERVATOR AFRICA SVAE, Africa stg. l. holding standard and ivory tusk, lion at her feet. EF. Very rare type well struck on a large flan. This coin has been gilded in antiquity as a presentation piece. Very rare with most of the original gold plating remaining. See Roma XI, April 7, 2016 for another example of a gilded medallion of the same diameter of Diocletian estimated at GBP 5000.


ROMULUS, (son of Maxentius)

9515. SCARCE FINE STYLE PORTRAIT OF ROMULUS, died 309 AD, Follis, RIC 257v. /Domed mausoleum surmounted by eagle. Rome mint. VF. Scarce.


DOMITIUS ALEXANDER, 308-311 (usurper in Carthage)

10824. ALEXANDER OF CARTHAGE. Usurper, AD 308-310. AE Follis (22mm, 4.00 g, 12h). Carthago (Carthage) mint. Laureate head right / Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; PK. RIC VI 69; Salama Type VI. VF, brown surfaces. Very rare.

L. Domitius Alexander led a short-lived revolt against Maxentius from 308 to 311, holding Africa and Sardinia. There is little known about this usurper, but there is evidence in an inscription (CIL VIII, 22183) that he and Constantine allied themselves in opposition to Maxentius. P. Salama in "Recherches numismatiques sur l'usurpateur africain L. Domitius Alexander," Proceedings of the International Numismatic Congress 1973, p. 365, note 2, suggests that at the latest, the pact was entered into by autumn of 310.



LICINIUS I, 308-324

11323. LICINIUS I, AD 308-324. AE Follis (21mm, 4.15 g, 11h). Antioch mint, 9th officina. Struck AD 313-314. Laureate head right / Jupiter standing left holding Victory on a globe and scepter; at feet to left, eagle left, holding wreath in beak; (wreath)/ΔE/III/ANT. RIC VII 8. A choice portrait of Licinius. EF, glossy dark brown patina. Provenance: Ex Classical Numismatic Group 37 (20 March 1996), lot 1833.


CONSTANTIA, (wife of Licinius, half-sister of Constantine)


LICINIUS JUNIOR, 317-324

10844. LICINIUS II, Caesar, AD 317 - 324. AE20 mm. 20mm, 3.17 g. Obverse: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, helmeted cuirassed bust left holding spear & shield. Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, between eagle & captive, holding Victory on globe & scepter, X/IIΓ (=12.5 denarii) to right. EF with silvering.


VALERIUS VALENS (Aurelius Valerius Valens), briefly co-Augustus with Licinius, 314

11693. VALERIUS VALENS, Usurper, AD 316-317. AE Follis (23mm, 4.15 g, 11h). Cyzicus mint, 6th officina. IMP C AVR VAL VALENS P F AVG, laureate head right / IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; to left, eagle standing left, holding wreath in beak; VI//SKM. RIC VII 7; R.A.G. Carson, "The Geneva Forgeries" in NC 1958, p. 57 and pl. VI, b (authentic issue in Berlin, from same dies). Good VF, brown patina, minor double strike on reverse, traces of silvering. Extremely rare.

After Licinius was defeated by Constantine in AD 316 at the battle of Cibalae (in present-day Croatia) Licinius elevated Valens, one of his generals who had been responsible for the Dacian frontier, to the position of Augustus. This enraged Constantine with the result that after he established a peace treaty with Licinius, in which three of their sons became Caesar, Valens was not only deposed but executed on the orders of Licinius. Valens' coinage, which was not very abundant to begin with (it is only known from the mints of Cyzicus and Alexandria), was recalled and melted down after his deposition, thus explaining its great rarity today. Commentary courtesy CNG.



MARTINIAN, briefly co-Augustus with Licinius, 324

11260. MARTINIAN, late July - 18th September 324 AD. AE Follis, RIC VII Nicomedia 45. 3.06 grams. Obv: DN M MARTINIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right. Rev: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped sceptre eagle with wreath at foot left, captive right; X over II Mu in right field; Mintmark SMNA. Fine. R5, extremely rare. Another view.

Martinian was the unfortunate who Licinius made his co-emperor in a moment of desperation following his defeat by Constantine at Adrianople on July 3, 324, under virtually identical circumstances to eight years before when Licinius had done the same disservice to Valerius Valens, who was executed after Licinius sued for peace. Martinianus was formerly the magister officorum (head of the civil service) to emperor. It is fortunate that coins were struck in Martinian's name, for their inscriptions provide him the title of Augustus - a contradiction to most of the literary sources, which only describe him as having held the subordinate rank of Caesar. The war quickly evolved on a disastrous path with Licinius no better prepared the second time to meet Constantine, who this time was determined to make his victory complete. The armies were enormous: the combined land forces exceeded 250,000 men and the seas were crowded with some 500 ships. From the first engagement Licinius was on the retreat, falling back to the Bosphorus and instructing Martinian to raise reinforcements and to prevent Constantine from crossing into Asia Minor. Unfortunately for Martinian and Licinius, Crispus, the eldest son of Constantine, won a spectacular naval battle and took command of the Sea of Marmara, thus allowing a flotilla to deliver Constantinian troops onto Asian soil. Eventually Licinius took refuge in Nicomedia with a fraction of his original army. His surrender was arranged by Constantia, who was trapped in the middle as the wife of Licinius, the mother of Licinius II, and the half-sister of Constantine. Though the lives of Licinius and his son were initially spared, Martinian was executed not long after he had been sent in exile to Cappadocia.




THE CONSTANTINIAN DYNASTY:


CONSTANTINE I, THE GREAT, 306-337

11321. CONSTANTINE'S CHRISTIAN VISION FROM HEAVEN. CONSTANTINE I, THE GREAT, Gold Medallion of 1 1/2 solidi (6.29 g) minted at Siscia, AD 326-327. Anepigraphic diademed bust right of Constantine the Great. Reverse: Emperor advancng right, holding military trophy, with left foot on captive and dragging another captive behind. RIC 206; C. 237. Smoothing in right obverse field. Sharpness of Extremely Fine. Provenance: Ex Gemini VIII 4/14/2011 ($16,675 hammer price); Ex NFA XIV (29 XI 84), lot 555; ex Hess-Leu 41 (24 IV 69), lot 565. A major rarity and one of the most important historical coins ever struck by the Romans.

This medallion in which Constantine looks up to heaven commemorates Constantine's famous vision of a Christian Chi Rho cross symbol in the sky before the battle against his stronger rival Maxentius at the Milvian bridge. Putting the Chi Rho symbol on his banners he was victorious over Maxentius and as a result converted to Christianity and made it the official religion of Rome thus ending centuries of repression of the Christians. This single event in turn resulted in Christianity spreading throughout Europe and becoming one of the major driving forces of European history up till the present.

There have been various explanations of Constantine's vision. One of the most convincing is a sizable meteorite known to have smashed into an Italian valley in the Sirente plain not far away at about the time of the battle. It is speculated that the trail from the meteorite would have been easily visible over the battleground and might have formed contortions resembling a Chi Rho cross as it broke up. Certainly it would have been taken as a miraculous sign from heaven by Constantine and his army.

Note: Though it is well known this coin depicts Constantine looking towards heaven it is invariably pictured oriented with him looking straight ahead. The proper orientation should be something like this.



ANONYMOUS ISSUES COMMEMORATING CONSTANTINOPLE & ROME, C. 330-346

10458. CITY OF CONSTANTINOPLE COMMEMORATIVE, 334-335 A.D. Bronze AE3, RIC VII 241, EF. Siscia mint, 18 mm. Obverse: CONSTANTINOPOLIS; Personification of Constantinople's helmeted bust left in imperial cloak and holding scepter across left shoulder. Reverse: Victory standing left, scepter in right hand, left hand resting on grounded shield, right foot on prow. BSIS in exergue. EF with great style and detail.


11053. CITY OF ROME COMMEMORATIVE, Commemorative Series. AD 330-354. AE Follis (17mm, 2.83 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint, 5th officina. Struck AD 330-333. Helmeted and draped bust of Roma left. / She-wolf standing right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above; SMTSE. RIC VII 187. EF, brown patina.


FAUSTA, (daughter of Maximinanus, wife of Constantine I)

10212. CHOICE FAUSTA AE FOLLIS. Fausta, wife of Constantine the Great. Obv: Her bare headed bust right; FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG. Reverse: SALVS REI PVBLICAE; Fausta as empress veiled standing facing holding her two infant children in her arms. Good VF with pleasing glossy forest green patina.


HELENA, (mother of Constantine I, first wife of Constantius I)

10359. HELENA, Trier mint. Obv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and draped bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas standing left, holding branch in right hand. PTR (crescent) in ex. RIC 465. Diam. 17,3 - 18,3 mm. Weight 3 gr. EF. Nice example with ornate jeweled crown.


CRISPUS, 316-326, (son of Constantine I)

10286. CRISPUS, Caesar. 317-326 AD. AE Follis (19mm - 3.03 g). Rome mint. Struck 326 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left / PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, camp-gate with no doors and two turrets, star above; R(wreath)T. RIC VII 288; LRBC 517. Nice VF, attractive brown patina. From the Zachary "Beast" Beasley Collection of Camp Gates.


DELMATIUS, 335-337

11679. DELMATIUS, 335-337, AE Follis. FL DALMATIVS NOB CAES, laureate & cuirassed bust right / GLORIA EXERCITVS, two soldiers, with sheilds & spears, standing facing standard between them, SMNE in ex. RIC 203. 1.51g. 16mm. EXTREMELY RARE - R4. Choice EF, as good as they come.

Flavius Delmatius (or Dalmatius) was son of another Flavius Delmatius, censor, and nephew of Constantine I. Delmatius and his brother Hannibalianus were educated at Tolosa (Toulouse) by rhetor Exuperius. On 19 September 335, he was raised to the rank of Caesar, with the control of Thracia, Achaea and Macedonia. Dalmatius died in late summer 337, killed by his own soldiers. It is possible that his death was related to the purge that hit the imperial family at the death of Constantine, and organized by Constantius II with the aim of removing any possible claimant to the throne.



HANNIBALLIANUS, 335-337, (King of Pontica, nephew of Constantine I)

11004. HANNIBALLIANUS, 335-337. Rex Regum, AD 335-337. AE Follis (14mm, 1.34 g, 12h). Constantinople mint, 6th officina. Struck AD 336-337. Bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Euphrates reclining right, leaning upon scepter; reed behind, overturned urn below; CONSc. RIC VII 147; LRBC 1036. Near VF, green patina, lightly smoothed. Scarce.

Hanniballianus, the nephew of Constantine, was given the title of King of Armenia, Pontus, and Cappadocia rather that the normal office of Caesar. He was murdered in the power struggle that ensued after the death of Constantine in 337.



CONSTANTINE II, 316-340

10131. CONSTANTINE II, 316-340 AD. AE 3. Laureate head right, CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C. / VOT X in wreath. Choice EF well centered and sharply struck example with excellent glossy dark green patina much better than photo.


CONSTANS, 333-350

11271. CONSTANS, 333-350 AD. AD 337-350. AE Centenionalis (22mm, 5.48 g, 12h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 348-350. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; A behind / Emperor standing left on galley, holding phoenix and labarum; Victory steering at stern; A//TRS. RIC VIII 243; LRBC 46. Near EF, dark brown patina. Provenance: From the Bruce R. Brace Collection.


CONSTANTIUS II, 337-361

10614. PEDIGREED CONSTANTIUS II, 337-361 AD. AR Siliqua (19mm, 2.04 g, 12h). Sirmium mint. Struck AD 351-355. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS/ XXX/ MVLTIS/ XXXX in four lines within wreath; SIRM. RIC VIII 15; RSC 342-3e. EF, attractively toned. Excellent sharp example with pedigree back to 1985. Ex Coin Galleries (22 February 1989), lot 424; Garrett Collection, pt. III (Numismatic Fine Arts/Leu, 29 March 1985), lot 332. Excellent centering on a large flan.


8627. CONSTANTIUS II, 337-361 AD. AE2, RIC.82. His diademed bust r./FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing barbarian cavalryman. Choice EF+. Best example, especially, the supersharp reverse, the best I've seen in quite awhile. Larger AE2 rather than the usual AE3/4.


10249. CONSTANTIUS II, 337-361 AD. AE22. Obverse: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, emperor on galley holding phoenix and chi rho standard. Good VF. Ex. Collection JA.


MAGNENTIUS, 350-353

10415. MAGNENTIUS, 350-353 AD. AE Double centenionalis. 7.8 g. 22 mm. Ambianum mint. Obverse: Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: Large Chi Rho Christogram. Sear 4017. Choice EF example.

This coin published in 'The Skull and The Cross', by Pastor Tom Hughes MA. Published by Remnant Publications, 2013.



POEMENIUS?, 352, (rebel in Trier)

10522. REVOLT OF POEMENIUS? in the name of Constantius II, 352 AD. AE22 Double centenionalis. Trier mint. Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVUS PF AVG Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: SALVS AVG NOSTRI, Chi-Rho flanked by A and W. Rare.

Several numismatists have tried to associate this coin, combining an obverse of Constantius II and a reverse type of the usurpers Magnentius and Decentius, with a tantalizingly obscure passage from the fourth-century historian, Ammianus Marcellinus. There, the historian, relating the clean-up of Magnentius'' revolt, mentions the killing of a Poemenius who revolted against the usurpers in Trier and handed the city over to the legitimate emperor, Constantius II. While J.P.C. Kent (NC 1959, pp. 105-108) asserted these coins, as well as a contemporary gold issue, were struck by Poemenius in anticipation of the emperor''s retaking of the city, P. Bastien (QT 1983), revisited the question. Re-analyzing the gold issue, he concluded that the bronze coins were issued only after Constantius had retaken the city, and not before. More recently, W. C. Holt (AJN 15 [2004]), while arguing with slight modifications, nevertheless agrees in general with Kent's hypothesis. Although this coin is clearly associated with the events of the revolt in Trier, any more certain conclusion at this point remains based on how one wishes to interpret the scant evidence.

One unanswered question remains: for what reason was a reverse type so closely associated with the usurpers used in combination with a legitimate obverse of Constantius? The political use of Christian symbolism became much more visible during the latter stages of Magnentius' revolt. His use of the Chi-Rho reflects a similar one of Vetranio: the emperor (either Vetranio himself, or Constantius II) holding a labarum, and the legend IN HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, a statement associated with the vision of Constantine I on the night before has battle with his rival, Maxentius. In the present case, it is quite possible that the forces of Constantius II in Trier briefly co-opted the symbology of the usurpers, adding the legend of the legitimate emperor to parallel the ultimate victory of Constantius II with that of his father. Certainly an interesting issue for further research. Source: CNG.



DECENTIUS, 351-353, (brother of Magnentius)

11040. DECENTIUS, Caesar, AD 350/1-353. AE (21mm, 5.06 g, 6h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck late AD 351. Bare-headed and cuirassed bust right / Two Victories standing facing one another, holding atop low column wreath inscribed VOT/ V/ MVLT/ X in four lines; TRS. RIC VIII 308; Bastien 41. Near EF, brown surfaces. Provenance: From the Deyo Collection. Ex Christensen 84 (9 September 1983), lot 257. Choice sharp example.


NEPOTIAN, c. 350, (rebel against Magnentius)

11127. NEPOTIAN. Usurper, AD 350. AE (22mm, 5.38 g, 6h). Rome mint, 2nd officina. Struck 3-30 June. FL NEP CONST ANTINVS AVG, rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VROS (sic) ROMA, Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe in extended right hand and spear in right; shield at side; RS. RIC VIII 203 var.; LRBC 644 var. Near VF, brown surfaces, scratches. Provenance: Triton XV, Collection of Princeton Economics acquired by Martin Armstrong. Ex Numismatica Ars Classica I (19 May 1999), lot 2379; Munzhandlung Basel 1 (28 June 1934), lot 2197.

Beginning in AD 350, the western portion of the Roman Empire underwent a period of rebellion and usurpation. Magnentius, a member of the Roman bureaucracy, taking advantage of the troubles of Constantius II with Persia, revolted and murdered Constans, the western emperor. Unable to go west and subdue Magnentius, Constantius II apparently allowed for two “legal” usurpations to occur: that of Nepotian in Rome, and Vetranio in Siscia. After only 28 days of rule, however, Nepotian was captured and executed by troops loyal to Magnentius. The failure of both Nepotian and Vetranio to stop Magnentius prompted Constantius II to appoint his cousin Gallus as Caesar. While Gallus held down the east, Constantius II could then head west to put down the rebellion of Magnentius and restore order. Commentary courtesy of CNG.



VETRANIO, 350

9441. CHOICE EF VETRANIO, 350 AD. Centenionalis, HRIC 6. /Vetranio stg. with 2 Chi Rho standards. EF+. Choice sharp strike.


CONSTANTIUS GALLUS, 351-354

12944. CONSTANTIUS GALLUS, 351-354 A.D., AE3, Cyzicus. DN FL CL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who has no beard, wears Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards. S in left field, Mintmark SMKS. RIC VIII Cyzikus 103. Near EF, dark brown patina..


JULIAN II (The Apostate), 355-363

11342. JULIAN II (variously known as The Philosopher, or The Apostate), AD 360-363. AE1 double maiorina (8.86 g.), Constantinople mint. Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG (abbreviated form of Dominus Noster Flavius Claudius Julianus Pius Felix Augustus = 'Our Lord Flavius Claudius Julianus Dutiful and Wise Augustus'), draped and armored bust with royal pearl diadem right fastened with a large brooch on the shoulder. Reverse: SECVRITAS REI PVB ('The Security of the Republic') / CONSPA (Constantinople mint mark) between palm branches; Apis bull standing right, two stars near head. Green black patina. EF. A choice example with a particularly finely styled portrait with excellent detail in hair and with an especially finely ornamented armor for the issue.

Julian was the last emperor who attempted to restore the old pagan gods of Rome after the emperor Constantine had adopted Christianity as the state religion. Reviled by later Christian writers he is often referred to as Julian the Apostate. The current coin is the largest and finest of Julian's issues and the bull on the reverse most probably depicts the Apis Bull, a lost Egyptian religious image which was rediscovered during Julian's reign. References: David Van Meter, Handbook of Roman Imperial Coins, #25, Laurion Press, 1991.



HELENA II, 360, wife of Julian II, daughter of Constantine I and Fausta.


JOVIAN, 363-364

10371. JOVIAN AE1, 363-364 AD, AE 1, Heraclea mint, 8.49 g., 28mm. RIC-107 (Rare), new officina. Rx: VICTORIA ROMANORVM / HERACA, Emperor standing l., head r., holding labarum and Victory on globe. EF. Ex. Gorny.



THE WANING OF THE EMPIRE:


VALENTINIAN I, 364-375

10267. SCARCE VALENTIAN AE1, 364 - 17 November 375 AD, AE 1, WEIGHT: 8.3 g., Diameter: 28mm. Flavius Valentinianus, commonly known as Valentinian I or Valentinian the Great, was Roman Emperor from 364 to 375. He was the last emperor to have de facto control of the entire empire. Upon becoming emperor he made his brother Valens his co-emperor, giving him rule of the eastern provinces while Valentinian retained the west. During his reign, Valentinian fought successfully against the Alamanni, Quadi, and Sarmatians. Most notable was his victory over the Alamanni in 367 at the Battle of Solicinium. His brilliant general Count Theodosius defeated a revolt in Africa and the Great Conspiracy, a coordinated assault on Britain by Picts, Scots, and Saxons. Valentinian was also the last emperor to conduct campaigns across the Rhine and Danube rivers. He rebuilt and improved the fortifications along the frontiers – even building fortresses in enemy territory. Due to the successful nature of his reign and almost immediate decline of the empire after his death, he is often considered the "last great western emperor". He founded the Valentinian Dynasty, with his sons Gratian and Valentinian II succeeding him in the western half of the empire. EF. Rare in this condition.


11313. SCARCE VALENTIAN AE1, AD 364-375. AE (28mm, 8.35 g, 7h). Aquileia mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 364-367. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe; SMAQP. RIC IX 6a; LRBC 961. EF, brown patina, porosity and roughness on reverse, but a choice obverse portrait. Provenance: From the R. D. Frederick Collection.


11221. VALENTINIAN I, AD 364-375. AV Solidus (20mm, 3.98 g, 6h). Nicomedia mint, 6th officina. Struck AD 364. Pearl and rosette diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding labarum with Chi-Rho and Victory on globe; SMNS. RIC IX 2b.2; Depeyrot 10/1. Near VF, light scratches and graffiti in fields, clipped. Choice style portrait.


VALENS, 364-378, (brother of Valentian I)

10287. VALENS. 364-378 AD. AV Solidus (21mm - 4.37 g). Constantinople mint. Struck 367 AD. D N VALENS P F AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / RESTITVTOR REIPVBLICAE, Valens, in military attire, standing facing, head turned right, holding labarum in right hand, Victory on globe in left; *CONS(wreath). RIC IX 25b; Depeyrot 21/2. Near VF, scratches before face, slight bend in flan. Excellent style portrait. Ex Classical Numismatic Group E-168, lot 267 (@ $763).


VALENTINIAN GALATES, 369, Consul Prior, only son of Valens

11378. VALENS WITH VALENTINIAN AND VALENTINIAN GALATES. AD 364-378. AV Solidus (20mm, 3.80 g, 11h). Antioch mint, 5th officina. Struck early AD 369. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Valens right / Valentinian and Valens seated facing, each holding globe and scepter; between them, a small figure (almost certainly Valentinian Galates) standing facing holding a scepter, above whose head is a shield inscribed VOT/ V/ MVL/ X in four lines; ANTE+. RIC IX 20f; Depeyrot 32/4. Fine, clipped, graffiti on obverse, dig on reverse. Rare.

The emperor Valens issued a number of solidi on which he appears enthroned beside his elder brother and senior emperor Valentinian I on the reverse. Some of these issues include a third figure, that of a winged Victory blessing the two co-emperors from above. However there is one issue in which the usual Victory is replaced by the figure of a small boy standing between the two seated emperors.

There is little doubt from the iconography that this boy must be a member of the imperial family and there are only two possible candidates, Valentinianus Galates the only son of Valens, or Gratian the eldest son of Valentinian I. Valentinian I had another son, Valentinian II, but he was not yet born at the time this solidus was struck in early 369. In that year Valentinian Galates would have been 3 years old and Gratian 10. The figure on the coin is closer in relative size to a boy of 3 rather than 10. Clearly there must have been some special occasion to issue this coin, and in fact there was a state occasion to celebrate as in 369 Galates was named Consul Prior (Consul to be). In fact the boy on this coin is clearly wearing consular robes and holding a scepter indicating his office. That and the fact that the coin was issued by Valens rather than Valentinian provides conclusive evidence that the figure of the boy on this coin must be that of Valens' only son Valentinianus Galates, the newly proclaimed Roman Consul Prior. Sadly Valentinianus Galates did not live to fulfill his promise dying the next year of illness at the age of four. Thus this rare solidus would be the only numismatic appearance of this young prince.



PROCOPIUS, 365-366, (usurper in the East)

10232. CHOICE PROCOPIUS, Usurper, AD 365-366. AE (18mm, 2.49 g, 12h). Constantinople mint, 3rd officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left / Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum and shield set on the ground; Christogram to upper right, uncertain object by left foot; CONST pellet. RIC IX 17(a).5; LRBC 2082. Good VF, dark greenish-brown patina, light roughness.


GRATIAN, 367-383, (son of Valentinian I by Severa)

11182. GRATIAN, AE17. AD 367-383. AV Solidus (22mm, 4.48 g, 6h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 6th officina. Struck AD 371-372. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Valentinian I and Gratian enthroned facing, holding globe between them; Victory facing above throne with wings spread; palm between; TROBS. RIC IX 17f (unlisted mint mark, see 17f.4); Depeyrot 43/4 var. (diadem). EF, a few minor deposits. Apparently unrecorded variety with a pearl-diadem and this mint mark.


VALENTINIAN II, 375-392, (son of Valentinian I by Justina)

10396. VALENTINIAN II,


THEODOSIUS I, 379-395

10440. THEODOSIUS I. AD 379-395. AE (23mm, 5.67 g, 7h). Cyzicus mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 379-383. Pearl-diademed, helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield / Theodosius standing left on galley, head right, raising hand; Victory at helm, (wreath)//SMKB. RIC IX 14c.2; LRBC 2550. VF, black patina.


AELIA FLACCILLA, (wife of Theodosius I)

10305. AELIA FLACCILLA, Augusta, AD 379-386/8. AE (22mm, 4.77 g, 12h). Heraclea mint, 2nd officina. Struck AD 379-383. Pearl-diademed and draped bust right / Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield; SMHB. RIC IX 17; LRBC 1982. Good VF, dark green patina, light smoothing. Choice example. Scarce. Ex. CNG.


MAGNUS MAXIMUS, 383-388, (usurper in the West)

10490. MAGNUS MAXIMUS, AD 383-388, AE2 Arelate mint. DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG; Dr., cuir. and pearl-diademed bust right. REPARATIO REIPVB; In ex: SCON; Emperor, stg. facing, head l., with r. hand raising kneeling turreted female, and holding Victory on globe in l. RIC 26a/2; 3.91g; 24mm; Good VF. Provenance: Ex White Mountain collection with ticket.


FLAVIUS VICTOR, 387-388, (son of Magnus Maximus)

10510. FLAVIUS VICTOR. AD 387-388. AE (13mm, 1.11 g, 12h). Aquileia mint, 2nd officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Camp gate with two turrets; star above; SMAQS. RIC IX 55b.2; LRBC 1104. VF, deposits on reverse. Rare. Ex CNG.


EUGENIUS, 392-394, (usurper in the West)

8926. CHOICE EUGENIUS, Usurper In The West And Puppet Of Arbogast, 392-394 AD. AR silver Siliqua, HRIC 9. /VRBS ROMA, Roma std l. on cuirass, holding Victory and spear. EF+. Excellent very sharp example of this rare Roman emperor. Fine old cabinet toning.


THE WESTERN PUPPET EMPERORS:


HONORIUS, 394-423, (son of Theodosius I, brother of Arcadius)

10590. RARE HONORIUS MILIARENSE. HONORIUS, 395-423. AR Miliarense (23mm, 4.35 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck AD 395-circa 403. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust left / Honorius standing facing, head left, raising right hand and holding globe in left; CON. Cf. RIC X 47 (Arcadius) for rev. type; RSC 19A var. (star in left reverse field). Good VF, toned, some porosity, slight bend in flan. Rare. Very impressive portrait. Ex CNG.


CONSTANTINE III, c. 407-411, (usurper in Gaul and Britain)

11012. CONSTANTINE III. AD 407-411. AR Siliqua (17mm, 1.18 g, 12h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. 2nd emission, May AD 408-late 409. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe and reversed spear; SMLD. RIC X 1531; King, Fifth 4; Lyon 251; RSC 4b. Near EF, toned, hairline flan crack, a pair of light scratches under tone. Rare. A superior sharp example.


CONSTANS II, 408-411, (son of Constantine III)


MAXIMUS, 409-411, (usurper in Spain)

11335. MAXIMUS OF SPAIN, 409-411, Barcelona mint. Siliqua. Obverse: Draped and cuirassed bust with diadem right. Reverse: VICTOR A AAVGGG, Roma seated left on cuirass, holding Victory on globe in right hand and inverted spear in left; [SMBA]. RIC X 1601; King p. 291; RSC 1b. 1.22g. RRR. Good VF. Choice example with entire clear obverse legend with name. According to Philip Grierson (DOCLR, p. 219), there are only about twenty known coins of Maximus. With the complete sharp legend, clear portrait and sharp reverse this is one of the finest examples known.

The fortune of Rome shifted incalculably downward on New Years Eve, 406, when the Rhine froze and several barbarian nations, including Vandals, Alans and Suebi crossed into Roman territory. It could not have happened at a more critical moment, for Honorius was fully occupied with the Visigothic king Alaric (who, in 410, would sack Rome). What followed in 407 and beyond was a mass devastation of the Western provinces: Germany and Gaul bore the brunt of the invasion, and Picts invaded Britain. Initially, Spain was spared these horrors due to its southerly position, but in 409 Vandals and other barbarians forced their way through the pass of the Pyrenees and laid waste to that land too. There was no government in Spain to speak of, and Honorius could not help; this left only the ephemeral presence of Constans II and his British prefect Gerontius. They had arrived in 408 to oppose the pro-Honorius militias that had been raised from the estates of Honorius relatives. Thus, even under these dire circumstances, Romans with competing loyalties still found reasons to clash with each other. Constans II and Gerontius overcame the local militias but failed to bring northern Spain into their ‘empire for long. Vandals and Germans soon poured from Gaul and into Spain. It is difficult to know whether Gerontius betrayed Constans II by coming to a secret arrangement with the invaders, but before matters got too far out of hand Constans II returned to Gaul. Meanwhile, Gerontius and the people of Spain were left to their own fate. As Salvianus of Marsielle reports in his De gubernatione Dei (52): "The Spaniards now began to burn in the same flames in which the Gauls had burned." Spain was looted by the invaders and a famine caused many who took refuge in walled cities to resort to cannibalism. The blame fell upon Gerontius, who then made a pact with the invading Vandals in which he hailed Maximus the emperor of Spain; he may have been Gerontius son, but more likely he was his senior household officer (domesticus). Nothing of substance is known of his reign except that it lasted until 411, by which time Honorius was in a position to recover the western provinces. In short order the rebels Constantine III and Constans II were killed and Gerontius was forced to commit suicide when his troops defected to Honorius general Constantius III. Maximus had apparently been in Gaul with Gerontius just before his suicide. The two-year reign of Maximus ended when he returned to Spain in 411 to seek asylum with his barbarian allies. He likely survived until about 418, but if he is the same Maximus tryannus who rebelled in Spain in about 420, we would have to extend his lifespan to 422, for that rebel was executed in the year of Honorius tricennalia. Commentary courtesy of NAC.



PRISCUS ATTALUS, 409-410, 414-415


JOVINUS, c. 411-413

10826. JOVINUS. Usurper, AD 411-413. AR Siliqua (15mm, 1.29 g, 5h). Arelate (Arles) mint. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated left, holding Victory on globe and reverse spear; KONT. RIC X 1720; RSC 2†b. VF, toned, fragile.


SEBASTIANUS, c. 412-413, (brother of Jovinus)


CONSTANTIUS III, 421


BONIFATIUS (Bonifacius), 422-431, (semi-independent in Africa)

12952. BONIFATIUS, Comes Africae (Count of Africa), AD 422-431. AE (11mm, 1.06 g, 3h). Carthage mint. Struck AD 423-425. DOMINIS [NOS...], pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Cross within wreath. Cf. RIC X 3810, 3814, and 3817 (obv. legend). Fine, brown surfaces. The reading of the obverse legend does not appear to match any of the expected types within the series, which would terminate NOSTRO, NOSTRIS (expected here given the plural ablative form of DOMINIS), and NOSTRORV. RIC lists a fourth possible reading (NOS-[TRIS…]), though this part of the legend is uncertain. Extremely rare.

Bonifatius was a Roman general and comes Africae, a friend of St. Augustine and the rival of Flavius Aetius. Beginning in AD 413, he was sent to deal with the two main Germanic tribes ravaging Rome's western provinces – the Visigothic king Ataulf at Massilia in AD 413, and the Vandals in Spain in AD 422. Because of these successes, Bonifatius appears to have been appointed comes Africae shortly thereafter. Upon the death of Honorius in AD 423, Joannes, the primicerius notariorum, seized power in the west. While the remaining provinces acknowledged Joannes as emperor, Bonifatius refused to do so, and prevented African grain shipments from reaching Rome. When Joannes was overthrown and Valentinian III, the son of Honorius's sister Galla Placidia, was installed as Roman emperor in the west by Theodosius II, Bonifatius supported him, resuming the grain supply. Aetius's political intrigues against Bonafatius, however, produced disastrous results, not only for Bonafatius, but also for the empire.

Under the influence of Aetius, Galla Placidia became suspicious of Bonifatius's intentions, going so far as to accuse the comes of treason. Refusing to surrender and face execution, Bonifatius sought the assistance of the Vandal king, Genseric, and offered him the right to settle in Africa in return for providing mercenaries for a possible war with the empress. Genseric agreed and the entire Vandalic people migrated across from Spain to settle in Africa. At the same time, however, Bonifatius had returned to imperial favor. No longer requiring mercenaries, he informed Genseric that the Vandals should return to Spain. Angered by this rejection, the Vandals attacked and pursued Bonafatius to the province's capital, Hippo Regius, in AD 430. There, they conducted a year-long siege of the city, during which time St. Augustine, bishop of the city, perished. Bonifatius, along with a large portion of the citizens were able to flee to Italy, leaving Africa under the rule of the Vandals for the next century.

The arrival of Bonifatius in Italy renewed the political intrigue of Aetius, who saw his rival's restoration to imperial favor and promotion as a sign of his own downfall. Fearing dismissal, Aetius and his Germanic mercenaries marched against Bonifatius, meeting him at the Battle of Rimini in AD 432. Although Bonifatius won the battle, he was mortally wounded and died a few months later.

The attribution of this type to Bonifatius is not certain, but hoard evidence suggests this issue was minted at Carthage, by virtue of its connection to similar issues with legends specifically naming Carthage, and belongs to the early 5th century, almost certainly before the siege of Hippo Regius in AD 430. The obverse legend sequence, moving from DOMINO NOSTRO to DOMINIS NOSTRIS, corresponds to the position of Bonifatius during the usurpation of Joannes and his support of the legitimate Roman emperors: the first legend reflects his loyalty to Theodosius II during the usurpation of Johannes usurped the throne in Rome, while the second demonstates his allegiance to Valentinian III, as well as Theodosius II (see RIC X, pp. 233-4). Commentary courtesy CNG.



JOHANNES, 423-425

10306. JOHANNES, usurper, AD 423-425. AE (12mm, 1.02 g, 1h). Rome mint, 4th officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Victory advancing left, holding trophy over shoulder and dragging captive; Christogram to left; Q//R[M]. RIC X 1916; LRBC 833. Fine, dark green patina. Clear legend. Rare.


VALENTINIAN III, 425-455, (son of Constantius III and Galla Placidia)

10827. VALENTINIAN III. Valentinian III. AD 425-455. AV Solidus (20mm, 12h). Ravenna mint. Struck AD 426-430/455. Rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Emperor standing facing, right foot on human-headed serpent, holding long cross and Victory; R-V//COMOB. RIC X 2011; Depeyrot 17/1. In ICG slab, graded AU50.


GALLA PLACIDIA, (mother of Valentinian III, half-sister of Honorius & Arcadius)

11332. GALLA PLACIDIA, Augusta, AD 421-450. AE (13mm, 1.49 g, 12h). Rome mint, 3rd officina. pearl-diademed (with four tails) and draped bust right / large Latin cross; small T to left at base; [R]. RIC X 2111; Kent Italian, Group I, 4; LRBC -. Near VF, brown patina. Full name visible in obverse legend. Rare.


LICINIA EUDOXIA, (wife of Valentinian III, then Petronius Maximus)

10828. LICINIA EUDOXIA. Augusta, circa AD 439-490. AV Tremissis (14mm, 1.45 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck AD 450-455. Pearl-diademed and draped bust right / Cross within wreath; CONOB*. RIC X 522; Depeyrot 72/3. Good VF, graffiti ('X') on obverse. Rare.


HONORIA, (sister of Valentinian III)

11437. HONORIA, sister of Valentinian III. 427 -, Ravenna. AV-tremissis. Diademed and draped bust r. Rev: Cross in wreath. Crawford 5; R.I.C. 2068. 1.48g, RR! Near VF.


PETRONIUS MAXIMUS, 455, (usurper in Rome)


AVITUS, 455-456


MAJORIAN, 457-461

11333. MAJORIAN. AD 457-461. AE (13mm, 1.61 g, 5h). Mediolanum (Milan) mint. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Victory standing left, holding wreath; [MD]. RIC X 2645; LRBC 582. VF, green and brown patina. Exceptional portrait for these.


LIBIUS SEVERUS (Severus III), 461-465

11277. RICIMER FOR LIBIUS SEVERUS, 461-465. AE4, 461-465, 1.04 g. DN [LI]B SEV [ERVS PF AVG]; Pearl-diademed head of Libius Severus right. Rev. Monogram of Ricimer within wreath. RIC X 2716; G. Lacam, "Le monnayage de Ricimer," Studia numismatica Labacensia Alexandro Jelocnik oblata, Pl. 5, Type 1. Extremely rare. Very fine. Die break on forehead but enough letters of the legend visible to clearly attribute it to Libius Severus which is rare and a clear monogram as well. Struck by Ricimer for Libius Severus.


RICIMER, 457-472, Patrician and master of soldiers

11277. RICIMER FOR LIBIUS SEVERUS, 461-465. AE4, 461-465, 1.04 g. DN [LI]B SEV [ERVS PF AVG]; Pearl-diademed head of Libius Severus right. Rev. Monogram of Ricimer within wreath. RIC X 2716; G. Lacam, "Le monnayage de Ricimer," Studia numismatica Labacensia Alexandro Jelocnik oblata, Pl. 5, Type 1. Extremely rare. Very fine. Die break on forehead but enough letters of the legend visible to clearly attribute it to Libius Severus which is rare and a clear monogram as well. Struck by Ricimer for Libius Severus.


ALYPIA, Augusta?, 467?-472?, wife of Ricimer. (Currently only a single coin depicting Alypia is known to exist, that being a solidus of her mother Euphemia with figures of Euphemia and Alypia on the reverse.)


ANTHEMIUS, 467-472

10856. ANTHEMIUS. AD 467-472. AV Solidus (20mm, 3.81 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 468. Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder / Anthemius and Leo I standing facing, each holding spear and supporting globe surmounted by cross between; (ROMA monogram)/Š//ŠCOMOBŠ. RIC X 2833; Depeyrot 67/1. VF, scuff on nose, deposits and light flan cracks, flan clipped and slightly bent. Rare.


EUPHEMIA, (daughter of Marcian, wife of Anthemius)


OLYBRIUS, 472


GLYCERIUS, 473-474


GUNDOBAD, 472-474, nephew of Ricimer, master of soldiers


JULIUS NEPOS, 474-475

11445. JULIUS NEPOS, 474 - 475, AV Tremissis, 1.44 g. Mediolanum 474-475,. Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev. Cross within wreath. Cohen 16. RIC 3220. Very rare. Minute hole, otherwise very fine. Ex Elsen sale 97, 2008, 318.


ROMULUS AUGUSTUS, 475-476


ODOVACAR (Flavius Odoacer, Flavius Odovacar), 476-493

12942. ODOVACAR, King, AD 476-493. AE (12mm, 0.76 g, 1h). Ravenna mint. ODO [VAC], bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Odovacar monogram. RIC X 3502; Morello 22; BMC Vandals 10. VF, earthen green patina. An extremely rare issue in Odovacar's own name. All his coins are quite rare, and almost all of those were struck in the name of Zeno rather than under his own name like this one so this is one of the rarest of the rare.

The reign of Flavius Odovacar as king of Italy is seen as marking the end of the Western Roman empire. A Germanic general he led the revolt that deposed Romulus Augustus the last Western Roman emperor on 4 September AD 476. Though the true ruler he at first represented himself as ruling in the name of Julius Nepos. However in 480 Nepos was murdered and thenceforth Odoacer, with the backing of the Roman Senate, ruled Italy autonomously as the first king of Italy. Extremely rare.




THE EASTERN EMPERORS:


ARCADIUS, 383-408 (son of Theodosius I, brother of Honorius)

10615. ARCADIUS. 383-408 AD. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.45 g, 6h). Ravenna mint. Struck AD 402-406. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, spurning captive with foot; R-V//COMOB. RIC X 1286; Depeyrot 7/2. Good VF.


AELIA EUDOXIA, (daughter of Flavius Bauto, wife of Arcadius)

11316. AELIA EUDOXIA, Augusta, AD 400-404. AE (18mm, 2.09 g, 6h). Nicomedia mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 401-403. Diademed and draped bust right; manus Dei above / Victory seated right, inscribing Christogram on shield set atop a column; SMNA. RIC X 102. Good VF, brown patina, minor porosity. Much better portrait than usual.


THEODOSIUS II, 402-450, (son of Arcadius)

10616. THEODOSIUS II. AD 402-450. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.42 g, 12h). Ravenna mint. Struck AD 423-425. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Emperor standing right, holding labarum and Victory on globe, placing foot on captive on the ground below; R-V//COMOB. RIC X 1801; Depeyrot 7/3. Good VF. Ex Peus 369 (31 October 2001), lot 899.


AELIA EUDOCIA, (wife of Theodosius II)

11011. AELIA EUDOCIA. Augusta, AD 423-460. AR Siliqua (18mm, 1.84 g, 12h). Constantinople mint. Struck AD 420-429. Pearl-diademed and draped bust right / Cross within wreath; CONS*. RIC X 384; RSC 4. VF, toned, a couple scratches under tone. Very rare.


PULCHERIA, (daughter of Arcadius & Eudoxia, sister and regent for Theodosius II, wife of Marcian)

12951. AELIA PULCHERIA. Augusta, AD 414-453. AV Solidus (21mm, 4.35 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck under Marcian, AD 450-453. Pearl-diademed and draped bust right, wearing earring and necklace; crowning manus Dei above / Victory standing left, holding long cross; star to right; CONOB. RIC X 512; Depeyrot 87/3. VF, grafitti in obverse field.


MARCIAN, 450-457

7952. MARCIAN, 450-457. Gold Solidus of Constantinople, H2. His bust facing/Victory stg with long cross. EF. Choice example. Scarce!


LEO I, 457-474

10308. LEO I, AD 457-474. AV Solidus (21mm, 4.47 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 8th officina. Struck AD 462-465. Pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear and shield / Victory standing left, holding long, jeweled cross; star to right; H//CONOB. RIC X 605; Depeyrot 93/1. VF, graffito on obverse, flan a bit wavy.


AELIA VERINA, (wife of Leo I)

11276. AELIA VERINA. Augusta, wife of Leo I. AE2, Constantinopolis 468-473, 4.71 g. Pearl-diademed and draped bust r. Rev. Victory seated r., supporting on a low column a shield inscribed with Christogram, to which she points. RIC 655. Rare. Brown tone and very fine. Ex Gorny & Mosch sale 156, 2006, 2524. An excellent example much clearer than most.


PATRICIUS, 470-471, caesar under Leo I


LEO II, 474, (son of Zeno, grandson of Leo I)

11451. LEO II, and Zeno, AV Tremissis, RIC 807 R3. CONOB = Constantinople mint. DN LEO ET ZENO PP AVG. Diademed bust of Leo II right. Rs. Victory with wreath and globus cruciger, 1.48 g. RIC 807 R3. GOLD, Very rare, EF.

When Leo I named his grandson Leo II as emperor, the boy's grandmother, Aelia Verina, arranged that her son-in-law Zeno was appointed co-emperor with his son. Leo II sickened in the same year thus legitimately installing Zeno as emperor. Leo II (Latin: Flavius Leo Iunior Augustus, Leo II; (b. 467 - d. 17 November 474) was Byzantine Emperor for less than a year in 474. He was the son of Zeno and Ariadne, and maternal grandson of Leo I and Verina. As Leo's closest male relative, he was named successor upon his grandfather's death. After taking his father as colleague, he died of an unknown disease about 10 months into his reign in November, 474. It was widely rumored that he might have been poisoned by his mother Ariadne in order to bring her husband Zeno to the throne. He was indeed succeeded by his father, although his grandmother Verina took advantage of his death to conspire against Zeno.



ZENO, 474-491, (father of Leo II)

10441. ZENO, Second reign, AD 476-491. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.49 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 7th officina. Pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield / Victory standing slightly left, holding long cross; star to right; Z//CONOB. RIC X 910; Depeyrot 108/1. VF, traces of an undertype or double strike.


ARIADNE, (wife of Zeno)


BASILISCUS, 474-475, (usurper in Constantinople)

11694. BASILISCUS AND MARCUS. AD 475-476. Solidus 475/476, Constantinopolis. Officina illegible. DN bASILISCI ET MARC P AVG. Helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust of Basilcus 1/4 facing with spear over r. shoulder and shield with horseman device on l. shoulder. Rv. SALVS REI * PVBLICAE; Basilicus enthroned on left, Marcus on right, both nimble, seated facing, each holding a globus cruciger, between them a cross and star above, CONOB in exergue. 4.48 g. RIC 1021. Depeyrot 104. MIRB 7. Rare. Uneven strike. Otherwise about extremely fine with an especially sharp face of Marcus. Ex Bank Leu, Zurich. January 1971.


MARCUS, 475-476, (Caesar and junior Augustus under Basiliscus)


11694. BASILISCUS AND MARCUS. AD 475-476. Solidus 475/476, Constantinopolis. Officina illegible. DN bASILISCI ET MARC P AVG. Helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust of Basilcus 1/4 facing with spear over r. shoulder and shield with horseman device on l. shoulder. Rv. SALVS REI * PVBLICAE; Basilicus enthroned on left, Marcus on right, both nimble, seated facing, each holding a globus cruciger, between them a cross and star above, CONOB in exergue. 4.48 g. RIC 1021. Depeyrot 104. MIRB 7. Rare. Uneven strike. Otherwise about extremely fine with an especially sharp face of Marcus. Ex Bank Leu, Zurich. January 1971.


AELIA ZENONIS, (wife of Basiliscus)

11161. AELIA ZENONIS. Augusta, AD 475-476. AE Nummus (9mm, 1.09 g, 7h). Constantinople mint. Diademed and draped bust right / Monogram of Zenonis. RIC X 1018. Near VF, dark green patina. Rare. Provenance: Property of Princeton Economics acquired by Martin Armstrong. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 50 (23 June 1999), lot 1776.


ZENO AND LEO, 476?, caesars, (sons of Basiliscus?)

TWO EXCEPTIONALLY RARE CAESARS!

11611. ZENO AND LEO CAESARS. AD 476-477. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.45 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 2nd officina. D N ZENO ET L-EO NOV CAES, pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over shoulder and shield / Victory standing left, holding jeweled cross; star in right field; B//CONOB. RIC X 906; Deypeyrot 107/1. EF, flatness on face. Extremely rare. We are aware of only one other example that has appeared on the market in the last 15 years. Provenance: Ex Stack's MIRB Sale (12 January 2009), lot 3043; Bank Leu 36 (7 May 1985), lot 369.

This coin belongs to the most enigmatic series in the entire fifth century AD coinage. Various attempts have been made to establish the true identities of this Zeno and Leo. On the evidence of an altered die, J. P. C. Kent, in his article "Zeno and Leo, the Most Noble Caesars" (NC 1959, pp. 93-98, pl. VIII) has demonstrated that this issue is contemporary with, or immediately followed, the coinage of Basiliscus and Marcus. Accordingly, he suggests that the Caesars Zeno and Leo were younger brothers of Marcus, son of Basiliscus, and were raised to the rank of Caesar when Marcus was created Augustus and co-emperor by his father.



LEONTIUS, 484-488, (usurper in Taurus and Isuaria)


11395. LEONTIUS. 484-488 AD, Alexandria mint. AE4. Bust of Leontius right, [LEO?N AE] / Leontius' monogram, mint-mark is not visible (presumably, mint of Alexandria). RIC 694 (also RIC X, p.122 note). Poor / Near VF. Extremely rare.

Leontius was a late Roman usurper in the Middle East. He was chosen as an Emperor by the rebels and crowned in Tarsus in 484 AD. His forces occupied a part of the Middle East, and his rebellion lasted for some 4 years. In 488 AD he was captured after a long seige in Isauria and he was executed by the Imperial forces. He issued gold and bronze coinage. The bronze small coppers (AE4's) that are attributed to him have a basic Leo's monogram with an additional bar in the right top corner, forming a letter "T". This bar would change the spelling from "Leonis" to "Leontius". These small bronzes seem to have been issued exclusively in Alexandria in Egypt and remain very rare. No other small bronzes bearing a monogram of Leontius are known, which is quite surprising considering the relative length of his reign. Because of this complete lack of bronzes of Leontius, the rare coins with a monogram of Leo, but with a horizontal bar added to add a "T", are often attributed to him (RIC 694, Walker, 1967). However no coin with this monogram with a completely legible obverse with a definitive emperor's name has been published to confirm this as far as we can tell. Since one would expect Leontius would have issued small bronzes, and this is the only known candidate, and the fact that any monogram of Leo should not include a "T", it is most likely these are the otherwise missing small bronzes issued by Leontius.



ANASTASIUS I, 491-518

NELSON BUNKER HUNT COLLECTION PEDIGREE

10784. ANASTASIUS I. 491-518. AV Solidus (20mm - 4.49 g). Constantinople mint. Struck 491-498. Pearl-diademed, helmeted, and cuirassed bust facing slightly right, holding spear over right shoulder, shield on left arm / Victory standing left, holding long cross, star in right field; I//CONOB. DOC I 3i; SB 3. Near EF. Provenance: Ex Nelson Bunker Hunt Collection (Sotheby's, 19-20 June 1991), lot 1033.